Material Composition of Steel Structure Building

Steel structures are a common form of construction in civil engineering, renowned for their excellent strength, toughness, and durability. They find wide applications in various fields, such as buildings, bridges, and ships. The superior performance of steel structures relies on the composition of their materials. This chapter will introduce the primary components of steel structure building materials.

Steel Structures

Primary Steel Structure

Refers to the steel structure component in a building that primarily carries the load. It consists of main components such as steel columns, steel beams, and crane girders. The primary steel structure is typically determined in the early stages of building design and plays a crucial role throughout the construction process. Selecting an appropriate primary steel structure design is essential to ensure the safety, stability, and cost-effectiveness of the building.

Primary Steel Structure


Secondary Steel Structure

The secondary steel structure refers to the structure responsible for fixing and supporting the primary steel structure. It is closely connected to the main load-bearing components, forming a complete structural system to ensure the safety and functionality of the building. The secondary steel structure mainly consists of tie rods, steel columns, steel beams, purlins, and other components.


Anchor Bolts

Anchor bolts are a special type of bolt used to connect steel structures to foundations. They are typically employed to secure building foundations or supports to concrete foundations, ensuring the stability and safety of the structure. Anchor bolts are usually made of high-strength steel, providing sufficient strength and durability to withstand the loads and environmental impacts of the building.


High-Strength Bolts

High-strength bolts are fasteners used to connect steel structural components, consisting of a bolt, nut, and washer. They are employed in steel structures where load-bearing and vibration are significant to maintain the fastening and load-bearing capacity of the connections.

High-Strength Bolts


C-section Steel

C-section steel refers to a steel profile with a “C” shaped cross-section, also known as channel steel. This configuration grants it greater stability and load-bearing capacity when subjected to tension or compression. C-section steel is extensively utilized in steel structure buildings for purlins, and wall beams, and can be freely combined to create lightweight roof trusses, brackets, and other architectural components.


Steel Gutter

A steel gutter is a specially designed drainage system typically made of steel, used for draining water. It collects rainwater into a trough, known as a gutter, and then discharges it through downspouts. The concave part between two spans of a steel structure factory building, used for collecting and draining rainwater to prevent water from entering the walls, is referred to as a gutter. They are commonly installed in buildings, roads, bridges, industrial facilities, and other areas to ensure effective drainage and prevent water damage.



Steel structure roofing refers to a roof structure primarily composed of steel components. Unlike traditional concrete or brick structures, it is characterized by being lightweight, durable, seismic-resistant, and fire-resistant, offering high levels of safety and cost-effectiveness. Common steel structure roofs consist of single sheets, insulation cotton, steel wire mesh, and sandwich panels (foam sandwich panels, PU, PIR sandwich panels, rock wool sandwich panels, etc.).

Steel Structure Roofing



Wall Cladding

There are various options for wall cladding materials in steel structure factories, with the specific choice depending on factors such as building design, budget, and climate conditions in the area. Common materials used for steel structure exterior walls include metal panels, PVC wall panels, fiber cement boards, stone panels, glass curtain walls, and sandwich panels (foam sandwich panels, PU, PIR sandwich panels, rock wool sandwich panels, etc.).



Windows in steel structure factories serve multiple purposes such as ventilation, natural lighting, sound insulation, and protection, improving the working and living environment while enhancing productivity and quality. Common types of windows include PVC plastic steel windows, aluminum alloy windows, and tempered glass windows.



Doors are crucial components of steel structure factories, playing a vital role in ensuring factory safety and improving productivity. They provide not only security and access control but also influence the efficiency of goods transportation and the overall appearance of the building. Common types of doors include steel doors, stainless steel doors, aluminum alloy doors, composite doors, and PVC doors.



Folded Components

Folded components are typically made of galvanized steel plates and are used for bending plates in steel structures. They are critical connecting materials in steel structure buildings, and suitable folded components can effectively enhance structural stability and durability, ensuring safety and comfort. Common types of folded components include lock-folded edges, C-shaped folds, L-shaped folds, and so on.


Drainage Pipes

Drainage pipes in steel structure factories are pipelines used for drainage systems, crucial components to ensure smooth drainage inside and outside the building. Common materials for drainage pipes in steel structure factories include PVC, PPR, PE, copper pipes, stainless steel pipes, and aluminum-plastic composite pipes.


Roof Ventilation

Roof ventilation is an essential component of steel structure factories, ensuring good indoor air circulation. Particularly important in environments where harmful gases such as heat, smoke, or chemical fumes need to be expelled, it helps reduce safety hazards and ensures the safety of people and property. Common roof ventilation systems in steel structure factories include roof exhaust fans, smoke vents, chimneys, roof ventilators, and roof exhaust fans.

Roof Ventilation



The various materials in steel structure buildings work together to form a stable structure with excellent performance. In practical applications, selecting and using these materials appropriately can enhance the safety, durability, and lifespan of the building structure.

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