What is Q235 Steel? A Complete Guide

Q235 is a type of common carbon structural steel in the Chinese GB standard, often referred to as A3 steel. The “Q” in Q235 represents the material’s yield limit, while the number “235” indicates its yield strength of around 235MPa. Due to its low carbon content, it possesses favorable overall performance and combines good plasticity with welding capabilities, making it widely applicable.



Characteristics of Q235 Steel:

Characteristics of Q235 Steel

High Yield Limit:

The yield limit of Q235 steel is around 235MPa, indicating its high strength. The yield strength (yield limit) of Q235 steel should be above 235MPa. This is also one of the meanings behind its designation “Q235”, signifying its yield strength of 235MPa.

Moderate Carbon Content:  

Q235 steel has a moderate carbon content, resulting in favorable overall performance. Its strength, plasticity, and welding properties are well-balanced, making it suitable for various applications.

Thickness Affects Yield Value:

As the thickness of the material increases, the yield value of Q235 steel tends to decrease.

Impact Temperature Variation:  

Q235 steel is categorized into four grades: A, B, C, and D, distinguished mainly by varying impact temperatures. The impact values differ depending on the specific impact temperature.


Comparable Materials to Q235 Steel:



ASTM A36 steel is commonly regarded as a material equivalent to Q235 steel. They share similarities in chemical composition and mechanical properties, both being low-carbon structural steels with excellent ductility and weldability.

Japanese JIS SS400:

SS400 is a structural carbon steel specified in the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS G3101. It shares similar chemical composition and mechanical properties with Q235 steel and is often considered an equivalent material to Q235.

European EN S235JR and Similar:

S235JR is a carbon structural steel specified in the European standard EN 10025-2. It shares similarities in chemical composition and mechanical properties with Q235 steel. Hence, it is commonly used as one of the equivalent materials to Q235 steel in European regions.


Q235 Steel Grades:

Q235 Steel Grades

Q235 Steel is a type of common carbon structural steel, which can be divided into different grades such as Q235A, Q235B, Q235C, and Q235D. The main distinctions among these grades lie in their performance and the impact temperatures they are suitable for. Q235 steel typically contains elements such as carbon, silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus in its chemical composition, imparting good plasticity and toughness to the material.

Q235A Grade:

Q235A grade typically contains:

  • Carbon (C) ≤ 0.22%
  • Manganese (Mn) ≤ 1.4%
  • Silicon (Si) ≤ 0.35%
  • Sulfur (S) ≤ 0.050%
  • Phosphorus (P) ≤ 0.045%

Q235B Grade:

Q235B grade typically contains:

  • Carbon (C) ≤ 0.20%
  • Manganese (Mn) ≤ 1.4%
  • Silicon (Si) ≤ 0.35%
  • Sulfur (S) ≤ 0.045%
  • Phosphorus (P) ≤ 0.045%
  • (Note: With the agreement of the demand side, carbon content can be up to 0.22%)

Q235C Grade:

Q235C Grade

Q235C grade typically contains:

  • Carbon (C) ≤ 0.17%
  • Manganese (Mn) ≤ 1.4%
  • Silicon (Si) ≤ 0.35%
  • Sulfur (S) ≤ 0.040%
  • Phosphorus (P) ≤ 0.040%

Q235D Grade:

Q235D grade typically contains:

  • Carbon (C) ≤ 0.17%
  • Manganese (Mn) ≤ 1.4%
  • Silicon (Si) ≤ 0.35%
  • Sulfur (S) ≤ 0.035%
  • Phosphorus (P) ≤ 0.035%


Applications of Q235 Steel:

Applications of Q235 Steel

Q235 steel, due to its moderate carbon content, contains elements such as carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur in its chemical composition. It exhibits good weldability, ductility, and mechanical properties, making it versatile for various applications. Its balanced performance allows for a wide range of uses across different industries.

Building Structures:

Q235 steel is commonly used in building structures such as frames, beams, and columns. Its high strength and good ductility contribute to making building structures more sturdy and reliable.

Mechanical Manufacturing:

Q235 steel plays a significant role in the field of mechanical manufacturing and is used for making machinery parts, bearings, gears, etc. Its high strength and ease of processing enhance the durability of mechanical equipment.

Automobile Manufacturing:

Q235 steel is widely utilized in the manufacturing of automobile components such as car body frames, wheels, axles, etc. Its strength and durability ensure the safety and reliability of automobiles.

Automobile Manufacturing



As a crucial structural steel material in China, Q235 steel boasts extensive characteristics and applications, playing a vital role in the country’s economic and industrial development. Its equivalence has garnered increasing recognition in the international market. Q235 Steel will continue to exert its significant influence globally, providing stable support for the development of various industries.


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